عدد الرسائل : 112
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بلدك : اليمن
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تاريخ التسجيل : 18/07/2010
|موضوع: chemotherapy&biological therapy 31/10/2010, 14:26|| |
What is chemotherapy?
Chemotherapy (also called chemo) is a type of cancer treatment that uses drugs to destroy cancer cells.
How does chemotherapy work?
Chemotherapy works by stopping or slowing the growth of cancer cells, which grow and divide quickly. But it can also harm healthy cells that divide quickly, such as those that line your mouth and intestines or cause your hair to grow. Damage to healthy cells may cause side effects. Often, side effects get better or go away after chemotherapy is over
What does chemotherapy do?
Depending on your type of cancer and how advanced it is, chemotherapy can:
• Cure cancer - when chemotherapy destroys cancer cells to the point that your doctor can no longer detect them in your body and they will not grow back.
• Control cancer - when chemotherapy keeps cancer from spreading, slows its growth, or destroys cancer cells that have spread to other parts of your body.
• Ease cancer symptoms (also called palliative care) - when chemotherapy shrinks tumors that are causing pain or pressure.
How is chemotherapy used?
Sometimes, chemotherapy is used as the only cancer treatment. But more often, you will get chemotherapy along with surgery, radiation therapy, or biological therapy. Chemotherapy can:
• Make a tumor smaller before surgery or radiation therapy. This is called neo-adjuvant chemotherapy.
• Destroy cancer cells that may remain after surgery or radiation therapy. This is called adjuvant chemotherapy.
• Help radiation therapy and biological therapy work better.
• Destroy cancer cells that have come back (recurrent cancer) or spread to other parts of your body (metastatic cancer).
• What is biological therapy?
Biological therapy is treatment designed to stimulate or restore the ability of the body's immune (natural internal defense) system to fight infection and disease. Biological therapy is also called biotherapy or immunotherapy.
• How does biological therapy work?
Biological therapy is a form of treatment that uses portions of the body's natural immune system to treat a disease. Biological therapy is also used to protect the body from some of the side effects of certain treatments.
• Biological therapy often involves the use of substances called biological response modifiers (BRMs). The body normally produces these substances in small amounts in response to infection and disease. Using modern laboratory techniques, scientists can produce BRMs in large amounts for use in the treatment of cancer and other diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis and Crohn's disease.
• What are examples of biological therapies?
Monoclonal antibodies, interferon, interleukin-2 (IL-2), and several types of colony-stimulating factors (CSF, GM- CSF, G-CSF) are forms of biological therapy. For example, interleukin-2 and interferon are two examples of BRMs being tested for the treatment of advanced malignant melanoma.
• Modes of biologic therapy that involve blocking the action of specific proteins of inflammation, called tumor necrosis factor (TNF), are being used for the treatment of a number of diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis and Crohn's disease. Etanercept (Enbrel) and infliximab (Remicade) are examples of commercially available injectable TNF-blocking treatments for patients with severe rheumatoid arthritis.
• What are the side effects of biological therapy?
The side effects of biological therapy depend on the type of treatment. Side effects include flu-like symptoms such as chills, fever, muscle aches, weakness, loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. Some patients develop a rash, and some bleed or bruise easily. In addition, interleukin therapy can cause swelling.
• Depending on how severe these problems are, for some patients hospitalization during treatment may be required. Side effects are usually short-term and gradually subside after treatment ends.
• The long-term side effects of the various currently available biological therapies will be better defined with future research from which will also surely emerge new and valuable forms of these treatments.